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2017考研英语(一)翻译考点考向点睛

2016-11-24 14:55:43 关键字:2017考研英语

  一、翻译重点考点预测

  1. 定语从句

  2. 并列结构

  3. 代词指代

  4. 复杂修饰语

  5. 特殊结构

  6. 一词多义

  二、翻译考前得分指导

  (一)翻译做题步骤

  翻译做题时间建议20分钟,每个题4分钟,具体翻译步骤如下:

  第一步:阅读首句,确定学科领域

  第二步:直奔句子,跳过细节词,拆分结构

  第三步:进入细节,确定词义,口译每部分

  第四步:调整语序,口头整合译文

  第五步:写译文

  (二)预测考点得分指导

  句法层面:

  1、定语从句

  定语从句最大的特点即是位置在被修饰词的后面,但是在翻译时位置却比较灵活。定语从句总的翻译原则在于使表达符合汉语的表达习惯。定语从句的翻译方法和难点如下:

  1)常用方法:前置/后置法

  定语从句较短时,即把定语从句的内容翻译成“......的”,放在被修饰词的前面。

  定于从句较长时,可将定语从句后置。方法:重复先行词或用“这”代替较长的先行词

  由于定语从句的引导词往往指代主句中的某一成分或者整个主句,所以在翻译时可以将引导词译为“这”,从而使句子表达更加符合汉语习惯。

  2)较难方法:状译法

  有些定语从句相当于主句的状语,修饰主句的谓语或者全句。起到原因、结果、目的、条件、让步等功能,所以翻译时需要根据逻辑关系进行翻译。如:

  (2007-49) journalists (who do not have a clear grasp of the basic features of the Canadian Constitution) cannot do a competent job on political stories

  本句中who引导的定语从句和主句存在着“条件关系”,因此可译为“如果…那么…”

  3)定状判别:where,when

  判别方法:主句里是否有时间地点名词,有时间地点名词就是定语从句,没有就是状语从句。

  翻译方法:(时间+when) 译为“在那时”, 地点+where译为“在那个地方”, 具体的时间和地点与先行词一致即可。

  2001-73 Pearson has pieced together the work of hundreds of researchers around the world, to produce a unique millennium technology calendar that gives the latest dates when we can expect hundreds of key breakthroughs and discoveries to take place. (定语从句)

  2013-48 The gardens of the homeless which are in effect homeless gardens introduce from into an urban environment where it either didn't exist or was not discernible as such. (定语从句)

  2011-50 The upside is the possibilities contained in knowing that everything is up to us; where before we were experts in the array of limitations, now we become authorities of what is possible. (状语从句)

  4)多定语

  形式:a. 修饰+n.+修饰(2-3个)

  b. n1.+定语1(n2)+定语2(定语1修饰n1; 定语2修饰n2)

  c. n+定语1+定语2 (两个定语都修饰n)

  多定语的处理:前后置结合法,短的前置,长的后置,保证平衡,避免头重脚轻

  2012-49 Joshua Greenberg, takes a more empirical approach to universality, identifying traits (particularly in word order) shared by many languages, which(关系代词还原的重要性:关系代词指代还原时,先行词并不是离得最近的那个词)are considered to represent biases that result from cognitive constraints.

  2、并列结构

  判断依据:并列关系前后的性质、结构形式、功能一致,语义相关

  例1:2012- 48 an ordinary citizen rests on an understanding of the established conventions and special responsibilities of the news media.

  (注:and并列的内容是established conventions和special responsibilities)

  例2:2011-48 This seems a justification for neglect of those in need, ①and a rationalization of exploitation, of the superiority of those at the top ②and the inferiority of those at the bottom.

  (注:第一个and并列的内容是a justification for neglect of those in need和a rationalization of ...;第二个and并列的内容是the superiority of ...和the inferiority of ...)

  例3:2015-48 But, the force of geographic conditions peculiar to America, the interplay of the varied national groups upon one another, and the sheer difficulty of maintaining old-world ways in a raw, new continent caused significant changes.

  (注:该句主语为三个并列的名词短语 force of…;interplay of…;和 difficulty of…,构成了A, B, and C这一经典的并列结构)

  3、代词指代

  代词指代是考查上下文理解的一个重要手段。在考研翻译中,如果出现代词,我们必须秉承一个原则,那就是如果代词不翻译会导致句意不完整或者不清晰的话,我们一定要将此代词还原。因为从历年的考研翻译真题可以看出,出题的本意在于考查考生是否理解代词所指代的对象,所以一旦代词出现在主要成分的位置,往往要求考生还原其指代的内容,不然极有可能导致扣分。

  除了his,they,these,such等容易辨认出的代词外,也要注意it,that等在句中有多种用法的单词,例如it出现时可能是形式主语、形式宾语、强调句或者指代,需要根据句法判断到底是哪种情况,以采用不同处理方式。

  此外,有些代词指代具体的某个单词,而有些则指代某个短语甚至某句,也需要根据语境判断。

  翻译代词时要注意:

  1)就近指代;

  2)承前指代,要注意代词所显示的性别、单复数,还要看清楚是指代的具体名词还是整体的句子。

  3)中英文差异:英语总是主句用名词,从句用代词;而汉语讲究“先来后到”,前面出现的用名词,后面出现时用代词。

  例1:2015-47 By all accounts he was a freethinking person, and a courageous one, and I find courage an essential quality for the understanding, let alone the performance, of his works.

  (注:根据语境可知he指代“Beethoven”,his也指的是他;one指代“a person”)

  例2:2010-50 It tends to ignore, and thus eventually to eliminate, many elements in the land community that lack commercial value, but that are essential to its healthy functioning.

  (注:本句考查两个指代:it指代前文提及的the system of conservation;虽然that在句中多引导从句,但是它也可以作代词。本句中that作代词,指代前面的many elements.)

  例3:2009-50 We are thus led to distinguish, within the broad educational process which we have been so far considering, a more formal kind of education —that of direct tuition or schooling

  (注:that此处作代词,指代前文的a more formal kind of education。请注意that of这一常考结构,that指代前面的某个名词。)

  4. 复杂修饰语

  考研翻译的难点之一就是繁杂的修饰成分,尤其名词的修饰成分太多,造成考生很难找到句子主干。

  1)介词修饰,尤其A of B结构。

  介词修饰中最常见的为A of B结构,其中A为名词,B为名词或动名词短语。它的固定翻译为“B的A”。如果B部分内容太长,也可对B进行拆分。

  例1:2009-46 the measure of the worth of any social institution

  (注:构成了A of B of C的结构,翻译为“C的B的A”,即任何社会机构的价值的衡量标准)

  例2:2010-47 but we have at least drawn near the point of admitting that birds should continue as a matter of intrinsic right, regardless of the presence or absence of economic advantage to us.

  (注:介词短语of admitting修饰point,其中还嵌套了that引导的宾语从句作admitting的宾语,增加了修饰部分的理解难度)

  2)分词修饰

  分词可以充当形容词修饰名词,也可以充当副词作状语。

  a. 分词或分词短语修饰名词

  理解方法:名词+Ving/Ved可以理解为定语从句:名词+(that is)+Ving/Ved

  翻译方法:按照定语从句翻译的方法译出。

  例:2015-46 This movement, driven by powerful and diverse motivations, built a nation out of a wilderness and, by its nature, shaped the character and destiny of an uncharted continent.

  (注:过去分词短语driven by powerful and diverse motivations作后置定语修饰movement,相当于定语从句:movement that is driven by…,翻译为“被…所驱动的运动”。)

  b. 分词或分词短语作状语

  理解方法:分词或分词短语作状语,相当于一个状语从句,其中分词的逻辑主语为主句主语或者是它自身所带的主语(这种情况为独立主格结构)

  翻译方法:按照状语从句的处理方法译出,如果分词内容复杂,单独处理为状语从句;如果内容简单,可以融合到主句中。注意根据句子语境来判断它和修饰部分的逻辑关系(如因果,让步,条件等),从而增加相应的关系词。

  例:1997-74 Arguing from the view that humans are different from animals in every relevant respect, extremists of this kind think that animals lie outside the area of moral choice.

  (注:现在分词短语arguing from…作状语,arguing这个动作的逻辑主语为extremist,因此翻译为“极端主义者认为…”)

  3)多个修饰成分叠加

  如果词语有很多的修饰成分,这时需要逐层判断修饰关系,往往会有两种情况:一、一个词语被多个词修饰;二、修饰成分中嵌套修饰成分。

  例:1990-49 Behaviorists suggest that the child who is raised in an environment where there are many stimuli which develop his or her capacity for appropriate responses will experience greater intellectual development.

  (注:who引导的定语从句修饰child,其中嵌套了where引导的定语从句修饰environment,where从句中又嵌套了which引导的定语从句修饰stimuli,)

  5、 特殊结构

  特殊结构考频不高,但一旦考查则多为难点和失分点。需要尤为注意的为倒装结构和比较结构。

  1)倒装结构

  出现倒装结构的几种情况为:否定词位于句首,only位于句首,if从句省略倒装,为强调等构成的倒装。可还原语序后按正常顺序译出,还原方法为将助动词或be动词后的主语提前,其余部分不变。

  例:2009-47 Only gradually was the by-products of the institution noted

  (注:该句因为only位于句首,因此出现倒装,真正的主语为系动词was后的the by-product,还原正常语序为 the by-product of…was noted)

  2)比较结构

  比较结构的标志为as和than,处理时需要先找出两个比较对象,然后寻找比较标准,最后根据比较结果译为“A比B…”或“A不如B…;与其说A不如说B”。

  例:the latter is much finer apparatus and of course much more accurate in its measurement than the former.

  (注:该句的比较对象为the latter和the former,比较标准为is much finer apparatus and of course much more accurate…,比较结果为the latter比the former程度更深,因此可以翻译为“后者比前者是一种更精密的仪器,因而在计量上必然更精确得多”)

  6、一词多义

  1)一词多义---实词

  a. 根据语境联系上下文猜测词义,还要注意文章所涉及的学科背景。

  具体名词、动词、形容词-->抽象一类概念

  2013-46...fundamental urges..(迫切需求)

  2011-50 The upside... (好的一面)

  2012-48 ... filter out what is unique (特殊事物)from what is shared(相同事物)...

  b. 根据词根词缀选择猜测生词的词义

  如:Astrophysicist 天文物理学家

  Ground-based detector以陆地为基地的探测器——路基探测器

  c. 根据汉语的习惯搭配来翻译

  如:Humans have the ability to modify the environment.(2003年)

  假设除了modify其他单词都认识,这句话就翻译成“人类有能力___环境”,到底是怎么环境呢?无非就是“人类有能力改造环境”“人类有能力征服环境”“人类有能力适应环境”,这些都是有可能的。再进一步假设,如果知道这个单词是“修改,更改”的意思,套入原文,发现“修改环境”“更改环境”无比的别扭,那我们就按照汉语习惯,改成“改造环境”。

  d. 根据最佳搭配确定意思

  如:distinctly human need 人类特有的需求

  distinctly shaky evidence明显站不住脚的证据

  2004-63 The newly described languages were often so strikingly different (完全不同)from the well studied (研究成熟的)languages of Europe and Southeast Asia that some scholars even accused Boas and Sapir of fabricating their data.

  2)一词多义---虚词

  a. however:有逗号时,意思是“但是”,表转折;没有逗号时,however后面接adj或adv,表示让步,意思是“无论多么”。

  2013-47 however crude it may be

  b. for: ①介词:为了,因为(与动词搭配blame sb for sth), 对于...来说;(2013-46)for all their diversity of styles (for尽管==despite)

  ②连词:+句子 “因为”

  c. as: 原因,时间(时态一致多表时间), 非限定性从句

  2013-47 .非限制性定语从句.... as opposed to shelter, which is a distinctly animal need.

  2004-62 原因 ... have since vanished, as the people who spoke them died out or became assimilated and lost their native languages.

  2007-47 时间 On the other, it links these concepts to everyday realities in a manner which is parallel to the links journalists forge on a daily basis as they cover and comment on the news.