考研英语高频翻译难点——特殊结构

2020-05-19 11:32:52

 考研英语翻译中的特殊结构往往是让同学们很头疼的难点,但就考频而言,最常考的特殊结构就是倒装结构和比较结构。下面我们就含有倒装和比较结构句型的实例进行方法总结和重难点归纳。希望在临近考试的最后一个月的时间里,能给到同学们帮助。

  1、倒装结构

  英语中的倒装结构一般有否定词位于句首的倒装,only位于句首的倒装,if虚拟条件句的省略倒装,以及为了强调而进行的倒装等。倒装结构一般需要还原句子的正常语序来翻译。

  真题例句1(1998年,75)Odd though it sounds, cosmic inflation is a scientifically plausible consequence of some respected ideas in elementary particle physics, and many astrophysicists have been convinced for the better part of a decade that it is true.

  句子结构:本题的倒装句是odd though it sounds。这是though引导的倒装句,还原为正常语序是though it sounds odd

  参考译文:宇宙膨胀说虽然听似奇特,但它是基本粒子物理学中一些公认的理论在科学上看来可信的推论。许多天体物理学家七、八年来一直认为这一论说是正确的。

  真题例句2(2009年,47)Only gradually was the by-product of the institution noted, and only more gradually still was this effect considered as a directive factor in the conduct of the institution.

  句子结构:本题是only放于句首的倒装句,而且含有两个倒装句,还原为正常语序为The by-product of the institution was noted only gradually and this effect was still more gradually considered as a directive factor in the conduct of the institution.

  参考译文:人们只是逐渐地才注意到机构的这—副产品,而人们把这种作用视为机构运作的指导性因素的过程则更为缓慢。

  2、比较结构

  比较结构是考研英语的重点,也是考研英语翻译的难点。此处将比较结构常考短语分类总结,便于考生记忆和掌握。

  (1)平级比较

  比较结果的重难点就是找出比较对象、理解比较关系,我们将其分为4个结构

  (1)“前肯后否”结构:more ... than ...

  表示两个事物的同一方面进行比较时,基本义:“比……多,比……更加”

  例:China is an economic threat more than a military threat. But it seems America doesn't know how to combat economic threats.

  参考译文:中国与其说军事威胁,还不如说对美帝有经济威胁。看起来美帝不懂如何打经济战。

  (2)“前否后肯”结构:less...than ...; not so much ...as ...

  表示两个事物的同一方面进行比较时,基本义:“比……少;比……小”。

  例:They claim to perceive in our policy a devious, self-seeking strategy that was influenced less by the facts than by a preconceived theory.

  参考译文:他们声称从我们的政策中看到了一种不正当的、专为追求私利的战略思想,这与其说是从事实出发的,倒不如说是受了先入为主理论的影响。

 

  (3)前后都肯定结构:no less ...than (=not any less...than...) ...; as...as...

  表示两个事物的同一方面进行比较时,译为:(前者)(后者)一样都……

  例如:She is no less beautiful than her sister. 她和她姐姐一样漂亮。

  表示同一事物的两个方面进行比较时,译为:既(前者)……又(后者)……

  例:She is no less beautiful than intelligent. 她既聪明又漂亮。

  (4)、前后都否定结构:no more ... than ... (=not any more...than)

  表示两个事物的同一方面进行比较时,译为:(前者)(后者)一样都不……

  例:He is no better at swimming than I.

  他和我都不擅长游泳。

  表示同一事物的两个方面进行比较时,译为:既不(前者)……也不(后者)……;

  例如:She is no more intelligent than beautiful.

她既不聪明,也不漂亮。

  真题例句:But his primary task is not to think about the moral code, which governs his activity, any more than a businessman is expected to dedicate his energies to an exploration of rules of conduct in business. (2006年第49)

  解题步骤1:识别比较结构:notany more than. (前者)(后者)一样都不……

  解题步骤2:确定比较对象:

  Ba businessman is expected to ……rules of conduct in business.

  A: his primary task is to think about the moral code, which

  参考译文:但是他的首要任务并不是考虑支配自己行为的道德规范,正如我们并不指望商人专注于探索商业行为准则一样。