【翻译】考研英语翻译高频考点--被动语态的翻译

2016-11-05 12:43:12


被动语态在英语中的使用是比较普遍的,然而,汉语中的被动语态很少,因此英语中的被动语态在考研英语翻译中都要转化为主动语态。下面凌菲老师给各位考生介绍一下被动语态在转换成主动语态的过程中常用的几种方法。

 

1.逆序法

逆序法就是汉语译文的语序和英语的语序完全相反。翻译时,要把英语句子后面的词或短语放到汉语译文的前面,有些句子所有词的顺序都发生变化,有些句子只有部分词的顺序发生变化。请看译例。

1A right kind of fuel is needed for an atomic reactor.

译文:原子反应堆需要一种合适的燃料。

2Every day new compounds are produced in the laboratory by the synthetic organic chemist.

译文:有机化合专家每天都在实验室制造新的化合物。

3Swift progress has also been made in culture and education.

译文:文教事业也有迅速的发展。

 

2.译成汉语的无主句

一些被动语态的句子可用汉语的无主句表达。

1It is important that fresh impetus be given to the national economy.

译文:重要的是,应该给国民经济注入新的活力。

2A court order was obtained, permitting the police to subject him to a lie detector test.

译文:获得了法庭指令,允许警察对他使用测谎仪进行测谎。

3It must be recognized that China is still a developing country.

译文:必须承认中国还是一个发展中的国家。

 

3.增添汉语逻辑上的主语

有些英语被动句翻译成汉语,需要增加逻辑上的主语,我们可根据上下文增加适当的主语。

1More state help is needed for the disadvantaged sections of the community.

译文:国家需要向社会的贫困阶层提供更多救济。

2Their bombs are always placed in strategic positions to cause as much chaos as possible.

译文:他们总是把炸弹放在战略要地,从而尽可能引起更大的混乱。

3Copper articles have been used for several thousand years.

译文:人类对铜器的使用已经有几千年的历史了。

 

4.语序基本不变 助动词be省略不译

有一些英语被动句,可按其原有的语序表达或作稍微的调整,但助动词be要省略不译。

1The members of the jury were discharged.

译文:陪审员都解散了。

2All the problems are to be discussed.

译文:所有问题将会进行讨论。

3The conference will be held next week.

译文:会议将于下周举行。

 

5 被动语态转换成“是……的”

一些英语被动句,翻译成汉语可用“是……的”来表达。

1History is made by the people.

译文:历史是人民创造的。

2Produced by electrons are the x-rays, which allow the doctor to look inside a patient’s body. 

译文:X 射线是电子产生的, 它使医生能透视病人的身体。

3These objects were produced using a revolutionary new process which until recently was unavailable in Britain.

译文:这些东西是用一种革新的工艺生产出来的,而英国直到最近才掌握这项工艺。

 

6 调整部分语序

有些被动句转换成汉语的主动句,其它的句子成分要作相应的调整,以便使译文符合汉语的表达习惯。

1The Statue of Liberty was dedicated on an island in Upper New York Bay in 1886.

译文:1886年,自由女神像在纽约湾北部落成。

2All objects are made to expand by heat.

译文:所有物质遇热都会膨胀。

3The problem of population control has to be recognized and approached in a world environmental context.

译文:世界人口控制问题必须从世界环境这个大局去认识、去研究。